Malpractice (definition - a deliberate act to cheat)
The infringement by candidates, administrators or teachers of the regulations governing the conduct of external examinations. Must be reported to an awarding organisation and may lead to a candidate being disqualified from one or more examinations and/or to a Centre being de-registered.

Maladministration (an administrative mistake which could lead to a more serious malpractice scenario)
An action by a Centre or its staff that breaks regulations and potentially threatens the integrity of examinations or disadvantage candidates.

The total score or individual points given by an examiner.


MIR (missing and incomplete results)
A post-results service which allows Centres to query missing results, partial absence and cases where no results have been received.

Management information systems. MIS is a formalised computer information system that can integrate data from various sources to provide the information necessary for decision-making at management level.


External moderation is the process by which internal assessment is monitored by an awarding organisation to ensure that it is reliable, fair and consistent with required standards. Usually done by sampling a Centre’s coursework/portfolios across the range of candidates and teaching staff. May lead to an adjustment to a Centre’s coursework/portfolio marks (see also internal standardization). Centres are required to have a similar process in place that is undertaken before marks are submitted. This is known as internal standardisation or internal moderation.

An examiner who checks a sample of a Centre’s coursework in a particular subject. This is to ensure that the marks awarded by the Centre conform to the standards set by an awarding organisation. A Moderator may upgrade or downgrade the marks awarded by the Centre.

A self-contained unit of teaching in a modular specification that is assessed and reported to candidates.

*Module bank (not in current use)
A database of module results achieved by candidates over a number of previous examination series.

*Modular examination (have been replaced by linear exams)
GCE, GCSE, or key skills scheme of assessment components could be taken over more than one examination series (as opposed to a linear examination.

*Module code
Code that identifies part of a specification entry.