E-assessment (also see online assessments)
Electronic assessment, also known as e-assessment, online assessment, computer assisted/mediated assessment and computer-based assessment, is the use of information technology in various forms of assessment such as educational assessment, health assessment, psychiatric assessment, and psychological assessment.

*EAB (gone)
The Examinations Appeals Board no longer exists, and its main function outlined here has been taken over by the Examinations Procedures Review Service, run by OfQual. This independent body was set up in 1999. The EAB is the final stage of the enquiries and appeals process, the earlier stages being carried out by the awarding organisations responsible for the assessment in question. An appeal to the EAB must be made in writing by the Head of Centre.

Now known as Review of Results (RoR). Enquiries about results. First stage of the enquiries and appeals process that allows for clerical checks, re-marks and re-moderations. Available via the post-results services governed by JCQ regulations.

The English Baccalaureate is a school performance measure. For more information see: http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/performance/secondary_11/s4.html

European Computer Driving Licence. An internationally recognised benchmark qualification that demonstrates competence in computer skills.

The EOA Centre Support Service will provide 1:1 support for Exam Officers and their Centres through local visits to Centres as well as by phone and email. The national ECSS is an independent, objective and impartial service run by experts in the field of examination management. These experts are knowledgeable and very experienced in the world of examinations. They are able to provide support, training and advice to all examination Centres throughout the county.

Edexcel (this is the awarding body which operates under the Pearson brand)
An awarding organisation incorporating BTEC and London Examinations.

Electronic data interchange. The file format used when allowing Centres to transmit entry and results data to and from awarding organisations via A2C.

*EDI carrier (replaced by A2C system)
A company that provided the EDI service, for example Research Machines’ Securenet.

*EDSU (disbanded 2010)
Exam Delivery Support Unit. This replaced QCDA and was managed through the National College for Teachers and Leaders (NCTL). ESDU provided key services to the exam community such as their induction programme for new exam office staff and the yellow label service.

The division of the awarding organisation WJEC which administers and provides most of the General Qualifications.


Entry level certificate. Formerly known as the ‘Certificate of Achievement’. An award designed for those candidates who are not yet ready for GCSE and other NQF level qualifications. There are three stages of achievement, broadly in line with national curriculum levels 1-3.

A candidate is eligible for a subject grade if they have completed the required number and combination of units, the details of which can be found in the Information Manuals and Administrative Guides for awarding organisations.

Exams Manager                                                                                                                                     This person may have a number of exams officer staff under them in a bigger institution such as an academy trust or college

A term used by some awarding organisations to mean the use of a unit result in aggregation. An encashed or aggregated unit score may contribute towards a higher-level award. For example, an AS award’s encashed units contribute to an A level award.

Enhanced award (see also Aegrotat and Part Absence)
A term used by some awarding organisations to mean an adjustment made to the terminal grade where a timetabled component was missed through acceptable absence in a terminal series and where the minimum requirements have been met. An application for an enhanced award must be accompanied by appropriate medical evidence that the candidate was unfit to take the paper. (See Special consideration.)

Enhanced DBS check (see DBS check)
Also referred to as an enhanced disclosure. These are for posts that involve a far greater degree of contact with vulnerable groups including children. In general, the type of work will involve regularly caring for, supervising, training or being in sole charge of such people. Examples include a Teacher, Scout or Guide leader

*Enquiry About Results (EAR)
Now known as a Review of Results. A process by which an awarding organisation may be asked to check one or more steps leading to an awarding decision.

The official notification, via a registered Centre, of the units/subjects in which a student wishes to be examined, in a particular series. Each entry has a code which must be used by the school/college when contacting the Awarding Organisation.

Entry code
Usually a four-character code used to make entries for examinations. May have additional characters to identify a particular option or type of assessment. May be numeric or alphanumeric.

Entry deadlines
Dates by which entries must be made for examination series. Later entries will usually be accepted, but only at an extra charge.

Entry files
Electronic files containing exam entries to be sent by A2C. Produced using CMIS and sent by secure transfer system.

Entry information
General information about entry for an examination series.

Entry validation
Process by which an awarding organisation checks the entry data submitted by Centres for an examination series. A way of identifying and resolving errors by reporting any invalid entries back to Centres.

Examination Officer. The individual responsible for the day-to-day management and administration of a Centre’s examination office for GQs and VQs.

EOA international (rebranded in 2019) continues the work of the original EOA created in 1999.
Examination Officers’ Association. The only professional association (created in 2005) of its kind in the world for all personnel who operate examinations in Centres in the UK and abroad. The EOA was formed as an independent, not for profit, charitable organisation whose role is to support the professional development of exam office personnel and lobby for more tranparency across the education and exam sector.

Erratum / Clarification Notice
A notice sent to Centres when a mistake on a question paper has been identified, prior to the examination being sat. The notice is for reading out to the candidates concerned informing them of the action they are to take. The Erratum/Clarification Notice is either attached to the bags of question papers or dispatched to Centres separately.

Estimated entries
Early estimates of entries required by awarding organisations to help them plan ahead, for example in examiner recruitment and numbers of examination papers needed.

Estimated grades (its use and application varies across the AO community)
Grades that a Centre suggests are the expected level of achievement for candidates in their subjects. Used as an aid by awarding organisations when dealing with problems when reviewing grades. Also known as ‘forecast grades’.

Examination cycle (only for GQs introduced by the EOA and copied by the NAA and The Exams Office)
The flow of interconnected examination processes, which begins with collating and gathering information from candidates and academic staff, matching this with data from awarding organisations, making and amending entries, candidates taking the relevant assessment components associated with their course, the awarding process, the issue of results, enquiries about results and appeals.

The Examinations Procedures Review Service was a part of OfQual which dealt with appeals on marks and grades after all other avenues have been explored through the EAR system.

Examination Oracle (for all examination centres with specific use by exams officers)
Exams management tool for the whole centre provided by the EOA to help centres manage their exam system and share expertise and workload

Examination series (always check your Centre’s needs)
The period in which examinations are taken eg:
January – WJEC qualifications / Pearson Edexcel iGCSE
March – some Science components
May/June – all GCSE and GCE AS/A2
November for English and Maths GCSE and most CAIE examinations

Examination session
The period – morning or afternoon – in which an examination takes place. Each session is usually of not more than three hours’ duration.

Examination Office
May refer to an actual office run by a team of exams staff or to an individual.

Examination SEND Service 
This is a support service for the exam officers by the EOA.

External assessment
Tasks set or defined by the awarding organisation, taken under specified conditions (which must include details of supervision and duration) and assessed by the awarding organisation.

External Candidate (See also private candidate)
Someone who is not registered as an internal candidate in a given centre because of personal circumstances, eg, behavioural, SEND or is Home Schooled and/or tutored privately (this is often the case for mature candidates who wish to take a qualification later in life to facilitate a career change or progression

Externally Moderated Coursework
Coursework which has been marked by a teacher at the Centre attended by the candidate. The quality of the marking is checked by an external marker called a Moderator.

External Candidate Service
This service has been set up by the iEOA to bridge the gap between centres offering access to take exams in their centre to external candidates.

Extra time candidates
Candidates who have been awarded extra time for examinations based on evidence of their specific learning difficulties. Centres may, provided they have the requisite evidence of need, award up to 25% extra and register this on the Online AAO system time. The evidence must be to hand when visited by a JCQ inspector. Applications for more than 25% extra time must be made in advance to the awarding organisations. (See Access arrangements.)