*A2
The second half of a modular A-level level qualification. All AS and A2 units that had been entered, were claimed under the relevant subject award code. Modular A levels have now been replaced by the new linear qualifications

A2C
The JCQ A2C migration application has replaced the old EDI entry system, allowing Centres to transmit entry and results data to and from awarding organisations without using a third-party carrier.

Absent
If a student does not attend an exam they will be recorded as absent and a mark of zero will be reported for that exam.

ACCAC 
Awdurdod Cymwysterau Cwricwlwm ac Asesu Cymru – the Qualifications Curriculum and Assessment Authority for Wales for all external qualifications.

Access arrangements and Special Consideration
Formerly known as ‘special arrangements’. Pre-examination arrangements, such as the use of prompters or Braille papers, primarily based on history of need and provision, for which an application to an awarding organisation may be necessary. An access arrangement is a pre-examination adjustment that is put in place before an assessment. It allows candidates with special education needs, disabilities or temporary injuries to access the assessment and show what they can do.

Access to scripts (ATS)
A post-results service which provides Centres with access to marked scripts.

Accreditation
The process by which the regulatory authorities confirm that a qualification and associated specification conform to the relevant accreditation criteria.

ADIP
The entry code for the Advanced International Certificate of Education Diploma.

Administrative zone
Aterm most frequently used by CAIE. An administrative zone is a part of the world where the clocks read similar times. Using key times and administrative zones together helps ensure countries in similar time zones have their candidates under exam or supervised conditions at the same time to maintain the security of question paper content. Administrative zone and key times can be checked here: www.cie.org.uk/keytime

Adjustments for candidates with disabilities and learning difficulties: Access Arrangements and Reasonable Adjustments. Published by JCQ each September and distributed to Centres in Autumn. Describes inter-board policies regarding access arrangements and special considerations. For use with GCE, GCSE, vocational awards, entry level certificates and key skills. Contains all the regulations and processes relating to making pre-examination adjustments for candidates in compliance with the Equality Act 2010. Sometimes known as the Terracotta Book (dfrom the colour of its cover

Advanced Level (A-level)
Also known as a GCE. A-levels are normally taken as a two-year course, often progressing from GCSE or its equivalent. They are usually taken by 16-19 year olds.

Advanced Subsidiary (AS) 
A stand-alone qualification, valued as half a full A-level, usually taken in the first year of an A-level course for the modular specification.

AEA
Advanced Extension Award. Aimed at able candidates in year 13 and available in a limited range of academic subjects. Offers opportunities for candidates to demonstrate a greater depth of understanding than that required at GCE A level, using skills of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis. Designed to enable differentiation between the most able candidates. Introduced in 2002. Now replaced for most subjects by the provision of A* for A level

Aegrotat Award
Also known as a Part Absence Award. If a candidate misses an examination for a component, for an acceptable reason e.g. illness, and there is sufficient evidence of the candidate’s ability, a score will be allocated to the component that has been missed and an appropriate overall grade will be awarded for the subject

AEO
Administrative Examination Officer. An Examination Officer who is not a member of the teaching staff at the Centre.

Aggregation (See also ‘Certification’ and ‘Cashing-in’)
The process whereby performances achieved on individual units are combined to give a grade for an award, qualification or certification for modular specifications.

Aggregation code (See also Cash-in code and Certification entry)
A four-character code that needs to be submitted by a Centre to an awarding organisation to indicate that the marks for the separate elements of an assessment scheme should be combined to form a grade for an award, a qualification or certificate.

ALS manager
Additional Learning Support Manager in a college or FE institution. A designated teacher responsible for the day-to-day operation of the Centre’s special educational needs (SEN) policy. A candidate is counted to be in receipt of ALS where direct support is provided over and above that which is normally provided in a standard learning programme, helping to achieve the learning goal. (See Access arrangements and Special consideration.)

Amendment file
A file of amendments to an original entry file, sent to the awarding organisation via A2C, to correct errors in candidate details or to change entry information.

Ammanuensis
See Scribe.

Analyse School Performance (replacing RAISEonline)
Analyse school performance is a new service, still under development, that gives access to detailed performance data that was previously available on RAISEonline. Access to the new service is via the Department for Education’s Secure Access portal, which allows the same login details for a number of different education data websites to be used. For access, please contact the Secure Access Approver at your establishment for advice. For more information and to log in, visit the Secure Access website.

ANCAA
Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic Admissions Assessment administered by Cambridge Assessment for applicants to read these subjects at Cambridge University.

Appeal
The process available to Centres or private candidates who remain dissatisfied after the outcome of a Review of Results (formerly known as an Enquiry about Results). The process consists of two stages. Stage 1 is a review of the case by a senior member of the awarding organisation’s staff who has had no previous involvement with the case. Stage 2 involves the case being presented to the appeals panel convened by the awarding organisation. The stage 2 appeal procedure is available to Centres or private candidates who remain dissatisfied after the outcome of a Stage 2 appeal to the awarding organisation. (See EAR and RoR.)

Applied General Qualification
Applied General qualifications – level 3 qualifications for post-16 students who wish to continue their education through applied learning, leading to employment and/or further and higher education.

Approval (Centre)
A process by which a Centre wishing to offer particular qualifications is confirmed as being able to maintain the required quality and consistency of assessment and comply with other expectations of the awarding organisation.

AQA
The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance. An awarding organisation (AO).

*AQA Regional Support Team
This regionally based AQA team was disbanded in 2015 and used to provide support and guidance through Centre visits and Exams Officers’ network group meetings. AQA ran their own exam officers’ network meetings and this very successful model was copied by the government National Assessment Agency (NAA) and the existing OCR network groups.

Assessment
The process by which evidence of candidate attainment is evaluated against assessment criteria, including mark schemes, to provide the evidence for an award.

Assessment leader (Also known as a ‘subject officer’)
A member of staff of an awarding organisation who is responsible for the administration of one or more specifications.

Assessor
An individual responsible for the initial judgement of candidate performance against defined standards expressed as assessment criteria or mark schemes.

Assistive Technology
Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities while also including the process used in selecting, locating, and using them.

*ATL (see the National Education Union)
Association of Teachers and Lecturers.is the union for education professionals across the UK. Active in the maintained, independent and post-16 sectors. It seeks to use its members' experiences to influence education policy, and works with government and employers to defend pay, conditions and career development. From early years to HE, teachers to support staff, lecturers to leaders, and to support and represent members throughout their career. The ATL has joined with the National Union of Teachers (NUT) to form the National Education Union (NEU). The EOA is an affiliate member of the ATL/NEU which offers discount rates for full time members.

ATS (Access to Scripts)
A process whereby scripts can be seen by candidates and/or teaching staff, either as photocopies or originals, after they have been marked. Available via the post-results service.

Attendance Register
List of candidates sent to awarding organisations (AO) for written or objective test papers to record whether candidates took the examination or were absent. AOs provide attendance registers that show the entries received from the Centre but these may need amending as a result of late changes. CMIS-produced attendance registers should reflect the up-to-date entries.

Authentication
Confirmation that work has been produced solely by the candidate on whose behalf it is being submitted. Authentication is a mandatory requirement for controlled assignments, coursework/portfolio submissions. An authentication form is provided by awarding organisations for declaring this and should accompany coursework sent to moderators when required by AO rules.

Authenticator
The person confirming a student’s-controlled assessment/coursework is their own work.

Award
The qualification received by a student who achieves the minimum grade requirement.

Awarding
The process by which an awarding organisation uses evidence from assessment to determine the award that each candidate's performance merits.

Awarding Organisation or Awarding Body
An organisation accredited by a regulatory authority to develop qualifications, set examinations and award certificates, subject to criteria laid down by the regulator. Formerly these were often referred to Examination Boards.